Worldcoronaviras (WCV) is a novel coronavirus that emerged in China in December 2019. The virus has caused an international pandemic of respiratory illness.
There are more than 100 known worldcoronaviras, which are classified into five families. These include the SARS-CoV family (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV family (mortality from ESCovirus contamination), Hendra infection family, Rous sarcoma virus family, and Flavivirus genus including Dengue fever virus and West Nile virus.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has become a pandemic, infecting more than 4,000,000 people worldwide.
The virus mainly targets the respiratory and vascular systems of patients. Symptoms include fever, cough and fatigue. In serious cases, patients may develop respiratory failure or death.
Although COVID-19 is a new viral illness, there is significant progress in clinical research and the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines. This is a major undertaking and requires a great deal of energy and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians globally.
The COVID-A vaccine is a protein-based oral vaccine that has been licensed or approved for use in several countries. It is effective in preventing COVID-19 infection in people aged 4 months and older, including those who are at high risk of disease or who have traveled to areas where the virus is active.
The vaccine is based on the Omicron VOC subclade of SARS-CoV-2 and contains a polybasic cleavage site in the S protein that enables host proteases to cleave it. It also includes transmembrane protease serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), cathepsin L and furin47.
The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has been a global health crisis that is affecting millions worldwide and killing hundreds of thousands of people each year. As the epidemic continues to unfold, public health agencies around the world are doing everything they can to prevent the virus from spreading further.
The worldcoronaviras are a family of positive sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that are transmitted via the respiratory tract. They are associated with common human respiratory coronavirus infections such as SARS and MERS, but also cause sporadic gastroenteritis in birds and mammals.
New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are surfacing globally at an increasingly rapid rate. These variants may be more transmissible, vaccine-resistant and able to cause more severe disease than the original strain of SARS-CoV-2.
This is a serious threat to the global response to SARS-CoV-2 and can overturn the progress that has been made so far. Monitoring the emergence of these variants is important to ensure that we’re prepared.
In the genome of SARS-CoV-2, four amino acid alterations (V483A, L455I, F456V and G476S) are located near the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. These alterations may help SARS-CoV-2 to latch on more tightly to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is crucial for SARS-CoV-2 to infect humans.
The worldcoronaviras (CoV) are a family of viruses that cause illness. Coronaviruses can be very serious and can lead to death.
On 12 January 2020, Chinese authorities announced the first human case of a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was initially identified in a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China.
A global response is needed to prevent this new viral illness from spreading. It includes vaccination, infection control measures and drug repurposing to reduce the risk of human-to-human transmission.
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel betaCoV with a genome sequence that contains many mutations, which makes it more able to evade the immune system and spread. Vaccines are the most effective way to protect people against this virus.
A coronavirus (CoV) is a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. Viruses in the CoV family can affect the respiratory tract, eyes and skin.
The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 was first identified in China in 2019, and has since spread worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and is working to help global experts, governments and partners understand and respond to the threat.
Symptoms of the disease include fever, cough, runny nose and sore throat. The disease can be life-threatening.
Long COVID is a serious and life-limiting condition that can impact on all aspects of a person’s health, including mental well-being. The condition can also increase the risk of developing medical conditions including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and dysautonomia.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of viruses that cause illnesses from the common cold to more severe respiratory syndromes. These include SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which emerged in Asia in 2013, and have a wide range of human, bat, and pangolin hosts.
A coronavirus that has not previously been seen in humans was identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with severe pneumonia in China. The novel betacoronavirus was named SARS-CoV-2.
SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is found in a variety of hosts including humans, pig, ferret, rhesus monkey, civet, cat, pangolin and rabbit11,43,48. It also has a polybasic cleavage site, which is not observed in all SARS-CoV-2-related viruses that have been sequenced.
SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the coronaviruses that cause disease in wild and captured bats and pangolins. Extensive surveillance of bats and pangolins and other wildlife hosts will help us to better understand the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2.
The COVID-19 vaccines are made with genetically engineered messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA delivers instructions to cells in your body that teach them how to build protection against the virus.
The mRNA is then broken down by the immune system so that it doesn’t enter your body’s nucleus. This way, it won’t cause an infection and will also not spread to others.
SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to other bat SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) and to pangolin coronaviruses (pc-SARSr-CoV). It shares 96% homology with betacovirus RaTG13 of bats and 99% with RmYN02 and pangolin coronaviruses.
SARS-CoV-2 has a very short incubation period and usually develops severe disease and respiratory failure within 8 days of symptom onset. This can lead to death in a large proportion of people who get infected. It can also be serious in people with heart or lung diseases and in elderly adults.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has since swept the globe, becoming the largest viral epidemic in global health history.
Viruses in the family Coronaviridae are positive-sense, single-stranded enveloped RNA viruses that cause respiratory infections in humans and birds and mammals. They are characterized by small bulbar projections, called spike (S) peplomers, that form crown-like clefts in the outer envelope.
In SARS-CoV-2, a single amino acid alteration, D614G, occurs in the receptor-binding domain (RBD; residues 676-690) of the S protein (Fig. 3b).
Another SARS-CoV-2 feature is a four-residue insertion in the S1-S2 junction of the S protein that generates a polybasic cleavage site and enables cleavage by furin. This cleavage feature is also found in bat SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) and a recently identified pangolin coronavirus from Guangdong province, China.
COVID-H is a promising vaccine candidate against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It consists of a single-dose injection of purified fusion inhibitors and immunoglobulins.
Several human monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed and are currently available. They target a number of the virus’s virulence factors, including receptor binding, entry and fusion to replication.
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus and is closely related to coronaviruses found in bats (SARSr-CoVs) and pangolins, as well as other newer coronaviruses reported from wild and captive animals. These viruses were derived by viral recombination or spillover among different coronaviruses.
COVID-I is a coronavirus, a family of viruses that cause respiratory illness in humans. Coronaviruses are characterized by crown-like spikes on the surface of their envelope proteins. Examples include SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the common cold.
This virus has not been previously identified in humans, but it is closely related to a number of other coronaviruses. The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 shows that it clusters with closely related sarbecoviruses found in bats, such as RaTG13, RmYN02 and ZC45.
SARS-CoV-2 also shares the same S protein as other coronaviruses, which requires host proteolytic processing to activate endocytic entry. This is done by cleavage of the S protein by TMPRSS2, cathepsin L and furin47,54,55.